Trans Europe Express (TEE) was the name for a network of luxury domestic and international express trains in Europe, which started in 1957. The concept was devised by F.Q. den Hollander, former president of the Dutch Railways. For use of the trains was a special surcharge verschuldigd.De design was a network of fast, cross day trains to create, that the head should provide the emerging competition from aviation. Profit rate would be achieved by handling of border controls and customs formalities in the train, and by the use of trains, thus setting back to headend took less time and the changing of locomotives at borders was not necessary. The TEEs had only first-class coaches. Some trains have special facilities such as secretarial services, a hairdresser and a shop. These facilities were usually short-lived. There was to obtain a uniform color in red and yellow. However, there have also driven carriages in blue and light yellow color. A number of countries had special services for the TEE trains build. Netherlands and Switzerland did this together. The head shape of these trains was designed in 1954 by Elsebeth of Blerkom.